For devices equipped with the Windows operating system, Windows offers its own troubleshooting that can help you immediately. You can find out how to start troubleshooting in this FAQ: "How can I solve sound problems on Windows 10?"
Sometimes it is sufficient to renew or update the driver so that everything works again. This also applies to microphones connected via USB or integrated in another device (e.g. webcam). Changes can be made in the device manager. Instructions can be found in this FAQ: "How do I update device drivers?"